# Michael Data

May want to do certain search operations over priority values.
Want to do priority-queue type operations: what is the next-largest integer?

##### Operations
• success(q)
• Find input object with key > q, as close as possible
• if q > top key: abort, no such item
• if z ⇐ bottom key, return bottom item

#### van Embde Boas Tree

Recursive tree structure for integer searching. Base case is any other search method. Current iteration stores min, max values and a hash function into recursive structures. Record with key goes into subset .
Time bound depends on N, the range of possible keys,

e.g. van Emde Boas tree [Kaas, Zijkstia '76] which are O(log log N) per operation:

• i-bit binary number x
• (i = 8) 11011110
• upper half of x (i/2 bits, hi(x)):
• x » (i/2) == 1101
• lower half of x (i/2 bits, lo(x)):
• x & 1)
1)
1 « (i/2)-1) == 1110
• VEB(i):
• if i is a constant:
• store a list of keys-record pairs
• otherwise:
• keep records with min and max keys separate
• in instance variables top,bottom
• partition remaining records into subsets Si
• record with key x goes into Si( hi(x) )
• for each non-empty subset Si:
• create recursive data structure VEB(i/2) “Li”
• stores records of Si but where every record
• only uses the low half of its keys: lo(x)
• store dictionary D
• D(i) maps instance i to Li
• create recursive data structure VEB(i/2), called H
• success(q)
• if D[hi(q)] is nonempty:
• if lo(q) ⇐ D[hi(q)]'s top key:
• We have a nonempty recursive structure with the same high half
• with at least one element which could be >= q
• return D[hi(q)].success(lo(q))
• try:
• return H.successor(hi(q)+1).bottom
• except:
• insert(object x, key k):
• if 0 items already:
• top = x
• bottom = x
• if 1 item already:
• update top or bottom to x
• if more than 1 item:
• check for updating top and bottom
• if D[hi(k)] nonempty:
• store x,lo(k) in D[hi(k)]
• else:
• make new VEB(i/2) L for …
• deletion is a little more complicated.
• If it is the top or bottom,
• the new top or bottom has to be found and removed

=== Fusion Tree ===
Time bound depends only on n, the number of items in the structure.

Fusion tree is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-Tree B-tree] with B = , but each node is stored as a compressed trie of its keys as binary number. Plus clever binary table-lookup tricks and arithmetic to make it fast.

B-tree: balanced search tree with greater than 2 children per node. The number of children is between B and 2B. Its height is .
• * O(log n / log B) steps to search
• each step may use O(log B) to find the correct child
• * update is also slow
• each step may use O(B) time
• * search or update uses only O(log n / log B) block I/O operations

Each node contains a number of keys within a set range. For keys within the node, there will be child references to sub-trees defined by the values of the keys.